Updated June 19,
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What's a compression point?
For a linear device, output power
is merely a fixed fraction of the input power. This includes most
passive devices such as connectors, cable, waveguides, etc. Nonlinear
devices exhibit complex behavior when input power is compared to
output power. However, most nonlinear
devices tend to become lossier with increasing input power.
Devices such as amplifiers, mixers and switches tend to fall into
At some power level, the gain
response of the device will become reduced by a specific amount.
This power level is said to be the compression point. Quite often,
microwave engineers refer to the one-dB compression point, but two
or three dB compression points are often important in power amplifier
chains. Thus we refer to the quantities P1dB, P2dB, P3dB. In switches
and other passives, you might hear reference to 0.25 dB compression
One general point about P1dB
measurements that you should know: if you are working on a transmitter
or exciter (or power amplifier), it is customary to specify the
P1dB point at the output (abbreviated P1dBout). For a receiver (or
low noise amp), the input P1dB point is often specified (abbreviated
P1dBin). That being said, low noise amplifiers, the most critical
component in a receiver chain, are most often specified with P1dB
data measured at their output. If you are the receiver guy, you
will need to calculate the worst-case P1dB at the input using the
range of available gain that the part may provide.
Why do we talk about "gain"
in a passive device such as a switch or a mixer, when obviously
they have no gain? Because chances are components will become part
of a larger chain, which will include amplification, and we want
to be consistent.
compression versus gain expansion
As we said, most components tend
to lose gain (or have increasing loss) as power levels are increased.
An example of a component that breaks this rule is a voltage-variable
attenuator, at least in its
high-loss state. If your attenuator needs to provide eight dB, it
is possible that at increasing power levels it will only provide
seven dB. Unfortunately, gain compression (or expansion) is a function
of attenuation setting.
Obviously, if you need accurate
attenuation settings, it is best to operate your attenuator below
the power level where its attenuation setting is affected. Note
that on attenuator data sheets, most vendors refer to "P1dB",
but make no mention of gain expansion or compression. Caveat emptor!
If someone has data on a variable
attenuator that exhibits gain expansion, send it to us and win
a cool gift!
If you want your system to "act
linearly", you need to stay well below the one dB compression
point. This can lead to serious inefficiency, for example, you might
need to use a 10 watt amp backed off to one watt output power.
If your system is required to
have a power amp with maximum linear range and provide good efficiency,
a "pre-distortion linearizer" or simply called a "predistorter"
can be used. This is merely a passive attenuator which has offers
gain expansion that counteracts the gain compression of the amplifier.
This is one of many linearization techniques, the others are much
more complicated and we won't be discussing them any time soon.
Plotting input/output characteristics
The "classic" way to
display power transfer characteristics is to plot the pairs of input
and output power data, from linear to nonlinear operation of the
device. The data is plotted, here using Microsoft Excel, and compression
points are picked off the graph. The figure below shows an example
of the input/output characteristic of an amplifier measured this
way (actual measured data, taken using our power
meter measurement setup). The measured output power is plotted
against the ideal linear response. Where these two lines diverge
by one dB is noted as the P1dB point. Finding the P1dB point on
this type of plot is neither convenient nor accurate.
Note that saturated power level
was not reached in this measurement. Psat is found when the slope
of the Pin/Pout curve is zero (becomes horizontal).
The next figure illustrates a
more accurate way to find the P1dB point using the same data. Here
gain compression, normalized to small signal gain, is plotted against
input power. Because of the much narrower range of the Y-axis it
is possible to find the P1dB point quite accurately from this graph.
You can find the 0.25 dB compression point just as easily. Unfortunately,
P2dB and P3dB are out of range in this measurement.
That's all for now!