Couplers and Splitters

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Welcome to the very best collection of knowledge on microwave couplers and splitters on the web!

Check out our unequal-split power divider calculator. It will design an unequal-split Wilkinson for you in a few seconds!

Power splitters and couplers are passive microwave components used for distributing or combining microwave signals. A splitter can be used as either a power combiner or a power divider, it is a reciprocal device. A coupler can be used to inject a second signal into a network, or as a means to sample a signal within a network (it is also reciprocal).

Couplers and splitters are usually three or four-port networks. N-way splitters are usually constructed as "corporate" splitters, where one two-way splitter feeds a pair of two-ways, which feed four two-ways, etc.

Coupler, splitter, or divider?

What's the difference between a splitter and a coupler? The way we define it, a coupler (usually) has four ports, uses no "internal" resistors and has one isolated port that is terminated. A splitter is (usually) a three-port, is non-directional, and requires internal resistors (like a Wilkinson) and has no isolated port. If you disagree or have anything to add to this distinction, tell us about it!

New for July 2015: Here's a new page that advises on the difference between a power splitter and a power divider.  Which is the correct definition? Weigh in and tell us! One of these days we may have to replace the word "splitter" with "divider" in a hundred places....

While we're on the subject of differences, let's answer this question for all time: what's the difference between a duck? A tree, because a motorcycle has no doors. Any other answer is incorrect.

Here is a clickable outline for studying power splitters and couplers:

Basic network theory

Properties of reciprocal and non-reciprocal networks

Properties of lossless networks

Properties of matched networks

Properties of three-port networks

Even and odd mode impedance

Gysel power dividers

Directional couplers

Hybrid (3-dB) couplers (90 degree and 180 degree)

Converting a branchline to a 180 degree hybrid

Quadrature couplers (90 degree hybrids)

Branchline couplers

Unequal-split branchline couplers

Coupled line couplers

Tandemized 8.34 dB coupler to achieve 3 dB coupling

Multi-section symmetric couplers

Lange couplers

3 dB microstrip coupler

Short slot (Riblett) waveguide coupler

Overlay couplers

Saleh N-way power dividers

Traveling wave couplers

180 degree hybrids

Rat-race couplers

Unequal-split rat-race couplers

Magic tees

Resistive power splitters

Resistive power tap

Adams resistive splitter

Owen resistive splitter

Wilkinson power dividers

Unequal-split Wilkinsons

Compact Wilkinsons

Lumped element Wilkinsons

Multi-stage Wilkinsons

Designing Wikinsons using Excel

N-way Wilkinsons

Lim-Eom three-way splitters


Author : Unknown Editor